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WONG YEE MAN (Mandy)

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Posted on Sunday, November 4, 2001 - 8:48 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

3. After 1815, Germany had chances to unify herself as the number of states of
the German Confederation had reduced to 39 states. That was a great improvement since there were more than a hundred states. But there were still several factors hinder the unification of Germany.
Firstly, not all the 39 states want to unify in fact. Although they were in the German Confederation, they were ruled by different powers before or even the set up of German Confederation. For example, people were mainly Protestant in the north while Roman Catholic in the south and conservatism and absolutism in government were supported in the north since in the south, people were supporting liberal ideas. Since they have such differences, there were difficult to find a way to standardize organization and administration.
Then, at that time, Austria and Prussia still had a great dominance in those German states. As they had their own interest in those states, they were not agree with the unification of Germany. With their great influence and the opposition of the rulers of smaller German states as they afraid of losing their power, there were difficulty to find an agreed method of unity.
Finally, France also opposed to the unification of Germany. As France also have some influence in the German states and she was just return her power. She strongly oppose to those attempts to unify Germany which will affect herself.
So with the great oppose of the foreign power and differences among German her own, unification was not so easy to Germany and so German remain disunity after 1815.

6. In 1834 to 1848, Germany had done a great work in unifying and contributed to
the success of German unification in 1871.
The most important was the creation of the Zollverein. Before the set up of the Zollverein, there were so many tariff should be paid for trading or just passing through one state though within the German Confederation. That was a great disadvantage to the communication among the states and hinder the unity. Then in 1818, Prussia started an uniformed tariff and later more and more states followed. And in 1834, the Zollverein set up. As Austria havenˇ¦t join this Zollverein while most of the German states joined, she no longer dominance a great influence in German affair and Prussia instead as Prussia became economically supreme in Germany. And this unity in economy had help the whole unity as this help the trading, communication, etc. among the states.
Besides, within 1834 and 1848, nationalism had grown and spread over Germany. The Germany realized that they were in same race, speak same language, have same tradition, etc. and they should unite into a single nation which ruled by their own nation people. So there were some attempts to unify and people started to support.
Furthermore, liberalism also rise and spread out. For example in Prussia, the king Frederick William IV aimed at greater political freedom and stronger national unity. He support the unity and so the United Diet. And liberal also supported in Hanover and Southern Germany, with this spreading, greater unity was contributed.
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wong ho ching (Ah_ching2)

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Posted on Sunday, November 4, 2001 - 2:18 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

3) What factors tended to perpetuate German disunity after 1815?

After 1815 German land remained as a loose confederation. There were numbers of factors which perpetuate German disunity.

Firstly, there was opposition among the German speaking regions. The German states reached no agreement on how they should be united. There was even a question that if all German speaking land should united into a nation. The Austrian opposed the plan since this may spread nationalism which may resulted in the collapse of her muti-national empire. Also, her non-German subjects was a barrier to the road to unification. Prussia and other smaller states did not agree the unity of Germany as the latter was afraid of the loss of powers.

Secondly, France opposed the idea of unification. France was edger to spread her own influence to some Southern German states, which were jealous of the Austrian supremacy. She intended to have a step on German affairs hoping to make a balance in central Europe. Any unification movement would hinder her French influence development in Germany.

Thirdly, the division and differences among the Germans shouldnˇ¦t be underestimated. In the aspect of religion and politics, Germans in north were Protestant and favoured absolutism whereas Germans in south were Catholics and they supported liberalism. Apart from the regional division, political parties with a variety of aims were founded. Thus, this made the Germans a weak sense of common nationality.


6) What were the chief factors contributing to greater unity during the period 1834-48?

During the period 1834-48, there were favourable factors contributing to greater unity.

Firstly, the creation of the Zollverein paved the road to a greater unity economically and later politically. The uniform tariff system promoted trade, communication and economic co-operation among the German states. Prussia benefited form this and she became economically strong. With the closer link in economics affairs, Germans started to think of an unification not just in trade but also in politics. And the Prussian leadership in the Zollverein also made the Germans to believe that Germany could be united without Austria but under Prussia.

Secondly, the growth of nationalism pulled the Germans closer. The sense of common nationality kept on growing in GermanˇVspeaking land with the more and more co-operation between Germans in each state. When the war scare broke out in 1840, all Germans became patriots and treat themselves as a whole. Patriotic songs, flags and poems appeared as a sign of the climax of nationalism.

Thirdly, growing liberalism in some parts of Germany was significant to the greater unity too. In Southern Germany like in Bavaria, Baden and Wurttemburg, constitutions and representative assemblies were granted to Germans. As liberals demanded a united Germany with a constitutional government, therefore the growth of liberalism favoured the growth of a greater unity of Germany.

12) Account for the failure of the German revolution in 1848-1849.

The failure of the Germany Revolution resulted from different reasons.

Firstly, there was opposition come from Austria and some German states. Southern German states like Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover and Wurttemburg opposed the unification plan as they strongly opposed the exclusion of Austria in new Germany, they were not satisfied to the proposed territorial limits

Secondly, there were no capable leaders in the unification. The Archduke John of Austria lacked both the power and will to lead the Frankfurt Assembly. Different opinions also made people to be united behind one solution.

Thirdly, the Prussian king did not support the revolution too. He refused to accept the crown offered by the Frankfurt Assembly, making the assembly failed eventually. Also, he sent troops to suppress uprisings threaten to her authority over Prussia. Thus, the revolution failed.

Furthermore, the internal division widespread throughout Germany could explain the failure of the German revolution. The Frankfurt Assembly in fact gained not much support. It ignored the need of social reform and security. In addition, the assembly denied the vote to those people who did not pay taxes . Therefore, this undermined its position

14) Account for the decline of Austrian influence in Germany from 1851 to 1863

The decline of the Austrian influence in Germany resulted from reasons with different
Aspects.

Diplomatically, although according to the note to the Federal Diet, the demand of the admission of the Austrian non-German land to the German Confederation purposed by, Schwarzenberg, was turned down by both Prussia and the Small German states. Prussia was now more interested in preserving the status quo. And to the small German states, they were afraid that the coalition would give a greater power to Austria which upset the balance of power in central Europe. This would also gave chances for more Austrian intervention to the German states.

And after the death of Schwarzenberg, Austria had no capable leaders to deal with external affairs with flexibility. Austria herself was torn between loyalty to Germany and to her empire. Nevertheless, in contrast, the Prussian power was growing increasingly in both economic and the military fields. The rise of able leaders like Von Roon and Bismarck made Austria relatively weaker.

Furthermore, Austria was no longer supported by Russia. The Crimean war made Russia treated Austria as an enemy and hence she could not act with considerable foreign support.

Economically, the Austrian failed to seek support from its brother states. Her two possible proposals
, namely the formation of a larger economic unit within the confederation under Austria and the admission to the Zollverein were rejected by many German states. She could only concluded a commercial treaty with Prussia in 1853.

Moreover, Austria faced a financial hardship. Her expenses were spent in several military activities including the control of her Hungarian subject , the expedition in Italy in 1859 which resulted from a loss of Lombardy and the prolonged mobilization of her troops in Crimean War. This made Austria hard to do any intervention with insufficient capital.

Internally, Austria was tired of her domestic unrests too. Being a multi-racial empire, her national boundary included many other subjects like Hungarians. With the influence of nationalism, they eventually organize tides of revolts. Therefore the Austria Empire was too busy to deal with the unrest, thus this weakened her power.
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leungsiusze

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Posted on Saturday, November 3, 2001 - 12:21 am:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

3) There were fews factors tended to perpetuate German disunity after 1815.

First of all,the powers concerned about their own interests and their own powers ,which made more difficult to bring the unity of Germany.As Prussia and Austria opposed to promote the greater unity state .This was because that Austria felt that promoting a greater unity state seemed that encouraged the nationalism feeling amoung the puplic and it was also afraided that would broke its empire up while its empire was consisted of many different national people.Like Austria, Prussia also afraided that the unity of Germany would lead the fell of its status quo,that's why it opposited to the promotion too.

Not only the larger countries ,but also the smaller countries opposited to the promotion of greater unity because it would mean they lost their powers. Moreover,France opposited the unified of Germany too because ithad some influence of South German states while it recover its power after 1815.

Furthermore,the weakness of the Federal Diet also lead to the disunity of German.The Federal Diet was no law which bound on any member state unless few particular states accepted it. And the agreement of 2/3 majority was needed on any changes of the constitution of the Confederation .

That was too complicated of the voting system that difficult to carry out the policies. And the Federal Diet was not a really parliament but a deplomatic congress.That was because that its members were not represanted their states because they wanted to protect them against their foreign enemy and liberism.
All of the above made the unify of German difficult.
--------------------------------------------

6) There were some important factors to contribute to the
greater unity during the period 1834-48.
First of all, the creation of the Zolverein which
provided a chance of economic co-operation for the states
and then cause the unity in the future.

The other factor which helped to cotribute to the
greater unity was that the growth of awareness of common
nationality.As we known ,nationalism was already noticed
after 1806.The German people also urged to form a
nationality of the same language,traditions ,
race.etc.

Lastly,the rise of liberalism also helped t he formation
of the greater unity.There were many liberals who was
looking forward to the formation of the "free German "which
with the democratic rule.For example, in the Southern
Germany ,the all states here as Bavaria, Wurttemberg, had
the representative meetingsas well as the parliament which
received a national hearing.
-----------------------------------------------
12) German had set up a constitut ion in the period of 1848-4 9 .However, it failed at the end. There were some reasons explain why it was failed.

First of all, the weakness of the Prussian Assemblies became an obstacle of the unification of German. The kings had restored from their powers and no allowed the parliament to make any decision about the unification.Also,there was no army to support the parliament as well.

Besides, the opposition of the powers also made the unification of German impossible.As Austria ,which strongly opposited to the action og unify German because it afraided to lost its land to join to form a new Germany.At the same time,Prusia didnˇ¦t want to see the unification movement as well because the king perfered to the absolutism than the constitutional government ,which the king then still can hold the powers on their hands.Also important that it just urged the new Germany under its rule.

Moreover, the wer some small states also opposed to the unification of Germany as Saxony.

---------------------------------------------

14) The decline of Austrian influence in Germany was caused by the major factors extenal as well as the intenal .

Extenally , Austria was diplomatically weak that it didnˇ¦t help the Russia in the Crimean War and then the Russia refused to help Austria which was seriously weakened then.
Moreover, Prussia became more and more powerful as its economically and minitarily growth rapaidly.Comparing with Prussia,Austria was greatly weakened and became lost of its influence in Germany .

There were some intenal factors also explain the decline of Austrian influences in Germany.
There was unstable and local unrest in Austria, which make its lost much power in European affairs.As Austria was a multi-racial empire, its local people always asked for more freedom like some demonstrations .Austria had to settle all those kinds of unrest or problems.We can say that those problems drived much attention of Austria from the international affairs.

In the other hand , economically hardship also a factor made Austrian influence of Germany declined . Austria was refused to joined the Zollverein by the German states in order to isolate Austria .Although Austria had tried to set up an eocnomic unit under its leadership,it was failed at the end with the opposition by the German states as well.
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leung siu sze

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Posted on Friday, November 2, 2001 - 12:00 am:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

12) German had set up a constitut ion in the period of 1848-4 9 .However, it failed at the end. There were some reasons explain why it was failed.
First of all, the weakness of the Prussian Assemblies became an obstacle of the unification of German. The kings had restored from their powers and no allowed the parliament to make any decision about the unification.Also,there was no army to support the parliament as well.
Besides, the opposition of the powers also made the unification of German impossible.As Austria ,which strongly opposited to the action og unify German because it afraided to lost its land to join to form a new Germany.At the same time,Prusia didnˇ¦t want to see the unification movement as well because the king perfered to the absolutism than the constitutional government ,which the king then still can hold the powers on their hands.Also important that it just urged the new Germany under its rule. Moreover, the wer some small states also opposed to the unification of Germany as Saxony.
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leungsiusze

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Posted on Thursday, November 1, 2001 - 10:52 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

3) THere were fews factors tended to perpetuate German
disunity after 1815.
First of all,the powers concerned about their own interests
and their own powers ,which made more difficult to bring the
unity of Germany.As Prussia and Austria opposed to promote
the greater unity state .This was because that Austria felt
that promoting a greater unity state seemed that encouraged
the nationalism feeling amoung the puplic and it was also
afraided that would broke its empire up while its empire was
consisted of many different national people.Like Austria,
Prussia also afraided that the unity of Germany would lead
the fell of its status quo,that's why it opposited to the
promotion too.
Not only the larger countries ,but also the smaller
countries opposited to the promotion of greater unity
because it would mean they lost their powers.
Moreover,France opposited the unified of Germany too because
ithad some influence of South German states while it recover
its power after 1815.
Furthermore,the weakness of the Federal Diet also lead to
the disunity of German.The Federal Diet was no law which
bound on any member state unless few particular states
accepted it. And the agreement of 2/3 majority was needed on
any changes of the constitution of the Confederation .
That was too complicated of the voting system that difficult
to carry out the policies. And the Federal Diet was not a
really parliament but a deplomatic congress.That was because
that its members were not represanted their states because
they wanted to protect them against their foreign enemy and
liberism.
All of the above made the unify of German difficult.


6) There were some important factors to contribute to the
greater unity during the period 1834-48.
First of all, the creation of the Zolverein which
provided a chance of economic co-operation for the states
and then cause the unity in the future.
The other factor which helped to cotribute to the
greater unity was that the growth of awareness of common
nationality.As we known ,nationalism was already noticed
after 1806.The German people also urged to form a
nationality of the same language,traditions ,
race.etc.
Lastly,the rise of liberalism also helped t he formation
of the greater unity.There were many liberals who was
looking forward to the formation of the "free German "which
with the democratic rule.For example, in the Southern
Germany ,the all states here as Bavaria, Wurttemberg, had
the representative meetingsas well as the parliament which
received a national hearing.
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Ko Yee Man Alanis (imspntt06.netvigator.com - 205.252.144.116)

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Posted on Wednesday, October 31, 2001 - 10:35 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Q.3
There were many factors contributing for the continuation of German disunity after 1815.These included the difficulty in finding an agreed method to carry out unification, the differences and divisions among the German people, the weak function of the federal diet and the opposition of France. These factors hinter the unification process in different ways.
Firstly, it was hard to find a common solution for unity because of the conflicting interest among states. In the Frankfurt Assembly in 1848, Austria opposed strongly because it would threaten her rule in there or in her empire. For Prussia, facing Austria and her internal opposition she finally refused to join the confederation. Other Southern states also feared losing power. It was therefore not many things to do for the unification.
Secondly, German people were divided and had different ideas. Generally speaking, northern German was Protestant but it was Roman Catholic in the south and they supported absolutism and liberal ideas respectively, whereas both of them lacked self-governed experience. Thus, it would be difficult for achieving unity.
Thirdly, the federal diet could not function well for joining the states together. It was a loose organization and had no real political power nor army, no wonder the states could not establish any joint action to achieve unity.
Whatˇ¦s more, there was strong opposition from France because she had influence in the Southern states and therefore not wishes to see any united Germany.
It was under these circumstances that Germany had no real unity after 1815.

Q6)
During 1834-48, Germany had strengthened herself to achieve greater unity .The factors contributing to greater unity were as follows:
Firstly, it was the creation of Zollverein. It was a custom union aiming at abolishing tariff between German states originated by Prussia. Until 1834,most German states joined the union .The Zollverein greatly strengthened Prussia ˇĄs economy and helped to promote a sense of economic unity among German states.
Secondly, the growth of awareness of common nationality contributed to greater unity. Nationalism grew among German people as they realized that they are sharing common language, race, customs and tradition. The war scare in 1840 that France would attack Germany stimulated the growth of nationalism.
Thirdly, was the growth of liberalism. Many liberals at that time wanted to create a German constitution .In the Southern Germany, there were voices demanding constitution. In Hanover and Prussia, greater freedom and national unity were guaranteed.

12.)
In 1848-49,German had a constitutional experiment, but it ended in failure. Reasons for the failure were as follows:
Ineffectiveness of the Frankfurt and Prussian Assemblies .The parliament failed to find any agreements about unification and soon the kings got back control the situation and restored their powers after it had made decision. Moreover, it did not have any military force to back up. Thus, unification ended in failure.

Besides, some German states, especially the southern ones, together with Austria, opposed the idea of the smaller Germany. Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover and Wurttemberg opposed the exclusion of Austria and as a result, the unification failed.

Moreover, there was a lack of good leaders. The parliament had no capable leader. Even its head, Archduke John of Austria havenˇ¦t got the real power and willingness to make the assembly effective. No person could unify the different opinion nor people together.

Nevertheless, the opposition of the Prussian king to revolution made unification in 1848-49 failed. Frederick William IV did not co-operate with the Assembly and refused to accept the crown offered by the parliament marked the collapse of the Confederation. Worse still, he suppressed the revolts in Germany. The German confederation in 1848-49 was thus come to an end.

And the last, internal division within Germany made the failure. There was no widespread support from the German people. The confederation was filled with middle classes or intellectuals; working class or ordinary citizens had little knowledge or faith about unity. Without widespread support and representative, the parliament ended in failure.

It was under these circumstances German unification failed in 1848-49.

Q14
In 1852-63,Austria influence in Germany declined. It was mainly due to her poor diplomacy, lack of Russian support, growth of Prussia in the external side, and internally, her domestic unrest and financial difficulties.

For her poor diplomacy, Austria wanted to preserve her present position in territorial aspect but eventually failed to do so. Even worse, she lost her leading position in Germany to the hands of Prussia even though she gave concessions to Prussia .So, Austria lost her influences in Germany


Austria lost Russian support she did not help Russia in the Crimean War. Therefore Russian would not give help to her in German affairs. Without Russian back up, Austria could not defend herself against growing influence of Prussia.

The growth of Prussia power counteracted the decline of Austria and became the leading power in Germany. During 1850s, able leaders such as the King William ,Von Roon ,Von Moltke and most importantly Premier Bismarck led Prussia into a strong state. Simultaneously ,Austria declined as Prussia became stronger.

The domestic discontent and uprising further weakened Austria. Her minorities rose up against her and especially the Hungarian, which later Austria had to share power with them, forming Austro-Hungary. In this, Austria had been weakened and could not make great influence in Germany.

Her financial difficulty made her not to influence Germany affairs. Since she did not join the Zollverein, Austria couldnˇ¦t get the leading role in economy of Germany. Though she later on found out the need of custom union, she failed to join back.
Whatˇ¦s more, the control of her internal uprisings, army expense in Italian war of 1859 and the mobolisation during Crimean War results in huge military expenditure. Therefore, Austria hardly influenced Germany.

All of the above result in the decline of Austrian influence in Germany affairs in 1851-1863
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ctk ( - 202.64.92.195)

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Half of you haven't submitted any answer!
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Cheng Siu Kei (Eric)

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3)Germany was still a geographical expression after 1815 without an enthusiatic attempt to unify itself.
Generally speaking, it was difficult to find out a common attitude to the way of unification.Austria and Prussia, the two greatest powers in the German Confederation,were not keen on it.

Ausria was afraid of a division of her empire since the unification might stimulate the national feelings of her subjects who are multi-racial.Furthermore, it was a problem that her non-German possessions might not be allowed to be included in the new Germany.

Prussia was willing to maintain an absolute ruling after the King was persuaded by Metternich.His grant of constitution might provoke a dangerous rising of nationalism.

Other small states opposed the unification since they would lose their powers if they were merged in it.

Also, there were many differences between the Germans. The north was a follower of absolutism and Protestants while the south was a supporter of Catholics and liberal governments. Parties were set up to exercise the different ways of new government. However, they were inexperienced and lack of power.

So, German disunity was perpetuated after 1815.

6)A sense of greater unity in Germany was raised in the period of 1834 to 48. Thus , the rise of unity contributed to a more serious concern to the unification.

The formation of Zollverein made a larger cooperation between the German states.Prussia m,being the greatest power in the Zollverein, became the hope of unification instead of Austria which didnˇ¦t join the organization. The economic cooperation such as unification of currencies, measures and developing railways
paved a road to political unification.

The growth of nationalism of Germany made unification possible.The German people felt that a nation-state included people of the same race, religion, language and tradition could make them more powerful and strong. TO the trend, unification was possible since when there was a war, the German subjects became patriots and wrote poems and songs to encourage German unity.

The growth of liberalism in the southern Germany gave a chance to unity. Bavaria, Baden and Wurttemburg had liberal kings who would like to have constitutions and parliaments.Although Prussia favoured absolutism, the rise in liberalism in Germany contributed to a greater unity.

12)The German revolution in 1848 failed.Germany remained as a divided expression in paper.

The opposition of Austria made the unification in 1848 impossible.Austria was keen on a new Germany excluding her to be her enemy.Also, she didnˇ¦t want to give up her non-German land to join the new Germany.Some states like Hanover and Saxony also didnˇ¦t wish to see it.

Prussia opposed to be given the throne in the Frankfurt Parliament. The King regarded it as the crown of shame.He didnˇ¦t favour the constitutional government but absolutism. Also, he wanted to have a Germany only under him.So, the decsion of Assembly, which was a federal union, was not good for Prussia.

The Assembly was long-time going. It continued for a year but wasted a long time for some disagreement like tge Daniish problem and methodof unification. Th lack of general support by people made it incaple of doing anything.The fundamental rights of German people also made a great argument in the Assembly.SO, how can it be efficient na dmkade use of the rise of nationalsim in steading waiting for the cooling down of ir?

So the Franfurt Assembly was proved to fail.

14)The decline of Austrian influence in Germany was one of the vital factors to the German unification under Prussia. After the Congress of Vienna , Austria and Prussia were both the leading powers in the German Confederation.

However, since 1853 ,Austria started to fall her influence in it.The Zollverein excluded Austria, making Prussia the economical head of the members in it.Austria had suggested a economic unit in Central Europe under her leadership but it was rejected by other states.Her admssion to the Zollverein was refused in 1853.These economical failures of linking with other states made her lcak of communication with others in the cause of unification in stead of Austria.

The domestic unrest in Austria weakened her power in Europe.The large empire included different racial subjects rebelled frequently. Austria was too tired to do much in the unfication since she had to pacify the unrest.The Hugarians, Czechs and Slavs were ready to break from Austria.The disunity of internal Austria weakened her to face external cause.

Also, Austria was made financially weak to depress revolts and in war with Italy in 1859 and mobilized in the Crimean War.The prolonged expenses in military was large and crippled her power.

The poor diplomacy skills of Austria showed her fall short of ability to lead Germany into united one.For example, Involving in the costly war with Italy and France to gain nothing but lose Lombardy gave her a lesson.She offered no benefits to Prussia when she needed Prussian help against France and Italy in 1859 was a wrong decision indeed.

We must notice that Prussia was growing while Austria was losing her influence in Germany.The able leaders lie Bismarck ,Von Roon and von Moltke after 1862 were the men of strength. They led Prussia powerful in economic and military terms.

Austria was the losing power in the German unification.She was not the member in it.The Dual Monarchy was formed since she was too weak to rule the whole empire.She had to share her power with Hungary.Germany was superior to Austria in the late 19th century in fact.

OK. Grade: A
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Tong Yuk-wa (Derek)

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3)Due to numerous factors, the German unity was weakened. These factors are as follows.

Firstly, Austria, the main enemy to the German unification, opposed the spirit of nationalism as this would result in the collapse of her multi racial empire. Moreover, whether Austria agreed to join the German union would cause problems, hence she would rather keep the existing situation.

Secondly, the differences and division among the Germans caused disunity. The states existed with different views which might contrast to each others. To make things worse, the differences in their religion and politics furthered the problems. In the north, the Germans believed in Protestant and favoured absolutism whereas the Germans in the south believed in Catholic and favoured liberal ideas.

Thirdly, the weakness of the Federal Diet also led to the disunity among the Germans. It had limited legal power as no laws were binding on the member states. It just depended on the statesˇ¦ willingness. Moreover, it lacked ways of enforcement. The army was just existed on paper for the states were not willing to pay effort. Without the army, there was no surprising that the Federal Diet was so inefficient that it led to disunity.

Finally, the disunity was due to the opposition of France. France had influence among the south German states. She did not want a unified and strong Germany existed next to her which appeared as a threat to her. This would upset the balance of power in Europe as well. That was why France opposed the German unity.


6)Between 1834-48, there were several factors contributing to greater unity among the German states. These factors are as follows.

The creation of the Zollverein helped to foster the German unity. The Zollverein was the first united body among the German states. The Germans agreed to a unified system of currency and measurement. IT gave the German a sense of national unity. Once the German enjoyed the economic unity, they looked forward to the political one, underlining the German unification.

Moreover, there was a growth of the national and liberal feeling among the Germans. For instance, France wanted to attack German to claim for compensation. Yet, the German states united together to resist the French attack. Besides, the middle class helped to foster the nationalism by an increased hatred of Austria. The growth of nationalism helped to contribute the German unity.

Thanks to the Vienna Settlement for giving Prussia extra territories, such as the Rhineland. This strengthened the Prussiaˇ¦s power. She then had large enough territories and population to lead the unification movement.


12)There were a number of factors leading to the failure of the German revolution in 1848-49. The factors are as follows.

The opposition of Austria and other German states to the proposed German boundary contributed to the failure of the German revolution. Some German states disagreed that Austria was excluded. This meant that there was no co operation among the German states.

The opposition of the Prussian king also lead to the failure. He refused to accept the crown of Germany marked the end of Frankfurt Assembly. He rejected to co operate with the other German states also led to the collapse of Prussian Assembly. Hence this resulted in the failure of the German unification.

Lack of able leadership was one of the factors leading to the failure of German movement. The Prussian king refused to accept as the leader. While Archduke John of Austria had no will and power in making Germany strong. He also lacked firm personality to put forward any policy in unification movement.

Finally, the internal divisions also led to the failure. Some people formed rival organization. Some might even form a republic. Hence it could be seen that the people divided among them and no untidy has achieved.


14)The decline of the Austrian influence in Germany was resulted from several factors from 1851-1863. These factors are as follows.

Diplomatically, Austriaˇ¦s decline was due to the loss of Russian support. As Russia was seriously weakened in the Crimean War, she have not yet recovered. Moreover, Russia had no liking to help Austria for Austria had not helped Russia in the Crimean War. Without Russian support, Austria was weakened then.

Economically, the financial problems caused Austria to decline in power. She has been crippled owing to her expense in military commitment. For instance, she had spent her expense in tackling the domestic unrest, mobilizing her forces during the Crimean war. Worse still, she had lost the rich land, Lombardy to Italy. That was why she declined economically.

Politically, poor diplomacy was another factor causing the failure of Austria. The Austrian had separated themselves into two groups, one was loyal to the empire and the other one was to Germany. Moreover, Austria was expelled from Italy and Germany without any compensation. This made Austria weaker economically.

Externally, the growth of Prussia further caused Austria to decline. Prussia became stronger and more powerful economically and militarily, especially after William IV became the king. With his long sight, he appointed Von Moltke as Chief of Staff, Won Roon to be the War Minister and Bismarck be the Premier. All these changes further increased Prussian power. In return, Austria was weakened, losing her dominance among the German states.

OK. Grade: A
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Chow Hiu Tung (Little_dawn)

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3) What factors tended to perpetuate German disunity after 1815?

After 1815, the forming of a united German state was mitigated by several factors. The difficulty in finding an agreed method of unity, the differences and divisions among the German people, the ineffectual Federal Diet, and the opposition of France are the factors for the continuous of German disunity.

Austria opposed to greater unity as this would encourage the spirit of nationalism, which meant the collapse of her multi-national empire. In 1815, the Prussian King, who had promised liberal reforms and a constitution, was dissuaded by his nobility and Metternich. Therefore, Prussia supported Austrian in opposing German unity. The rulers of the smaller German states also opposed measures to promote greater unity, as it would result in the loss of their powers. The conflicting interest of the various German states made unity difficult to be achieved.

Differences among the German people in religion and politics are also an obstacle for German unity. In the north, people were mainly Protestant and inclined to support conservation and absolutism in government. Whereas those in the south were generally Roman Catholic and inclined towards liberal ideas. This made attempts at methods of organization and administration difficult.

For the Federal Diet, it was weak for numerous reasons. Firstly, the legal powers of it were limited and the voting system was complicated. And the Diet was a diplomatic congress, not a parliament. The federal army existed mainly on paper, so the Diet lacked means of enforcing its wishes. Lastly, the Diet had a mixed composition. The monarchs of some foreign powers were represented for their interests in certain German states. As a result, this Federal Diet was ineffectual.

The South German states which were jealous of Austrian power, had been influenced by France. As France had recovered her power after 1815, so attempts to create a united Germany would be strongly opposed by her. All of the above are the reasons for continued German disunity.

6) What were the chief factors contributing to greater unity during the period 1834-48?

During 1834-48, the intellectuals, like musicians and poets, and also students, had made an effort to promote German unity. Here are the main factors contributing to greater unity.

The first one was the growth of awareness of common nationality. After 1806, nationalism became a powerful sentiment. People realized that they constituted a single nationality in terms of language, race, historic past, customs and traditions. When it seemed France might attack Germany to compensate for her isolation in the Near East in 1840, the feeling for nationalism grown further. This kind of national feeling contributed to the greater unity.

Many liberals were looking forward to create ˇ§ a free Germany with constitutional democratic ruleˇ¨. All the states in the Southern Germany had constitutions and representative assemblies. Their parliamentary orator received a national hearing, and struggled for liberalism. In 1837, the new king of Hanover set aside the liberal constitution granted by William IV, this was strongly opposed by his people. Although they were supported by Bavaria and others in the Federal Diet, the Diet was forced to approve the Kingˇ¦s action. Seven university professors who were expelled for refusing to acknowledge the action of the King, became heroes in the eyes of German liberals. The Prussia new king, Frederick William IV was a supporter of greater political freedom and stronger national unity. He released many political prisoners, moderated the press censorship, gave greater power to provincial Diets and included liberals in his government. These strongly promoted German unity.

The Zollverein, in which duties on trade were abolished, not only promoted economic co-operation, but also paved way for further German unity.

12) Account for the failure of the German revolution in 1848-9.

In 1848, the February revolution of France led to widespread discontent among the Germans. Uprising occurred. However, the German revolution failed to bought for unity. Here are the reasons for its failure.

The first National Assembly of Germany was convened in Frankfurt on 18th May. Yet, various factors contributed to its general weakness. For example, in the assembly. Much time was spent in tortuous academic debates on drafting the Fundamental Rights of the German People. But before the document was finished, the Austrian government and most German rulers had recovered their authority. This meant that many of its conclusion were opposed by the returning reactionary forces. The German states could not agree on the method of unification. In lack of the means to enforce decisions, the provisional government had to rely on the forces of the separate individual states. The assembly also lacked general support as it denied the vote to those people who did not pay taxes. Its unbalanced composition, the Danish and the Polish problem were also factors for the weakness of the Frankfurt Assembly, which contributed to the failure of the German revolution in turn.

In Prussia, they King opposed any basic reform of the Prussian state, so the Prussian National Assembly, which was elected by universal manhood suffrage in May 1848, debated incessantly without taking any firm decision. After mob violence took place in Berlin on 14th June, the King suspended the meetings of the Assembly and to recall the army to the capital in November. This ended the revolution in Prussia. And the German revolution was also affected.

Another obstacle for the revolution was that, in March 1849, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover and Wurttemberg opposed to the exclusion of Austria from Germany.

For the leaders of the revolution, they did not have forceful personality to unify the people. Like Archduke John of Austria, he lacked both will and power to make the Frankfurt Assembly effective.

There was a person who affect the German revolution very much, he was the Prussian king, Frederick William IV. His lack of co-operation contributed to the failure of the Prussian Assembly, his refusal to accept the crown of Germany contributed to the final collapse of the Frankfurt Assembly, he also led to the final collapse of the revolution.

Many working class people were either indifferent to the revolution or formed rival organization. The internal divisions within Germany also contributed to the failure.

To conclude, the ineffectiveness of the Frankfurt and Prussian Assembly, the opposition of Austria and some German stats to proposed territorial limits of Germany, the lack of good leaders, the opposition of the Prussian King, and internal divisions within Germany were reasons for the failure of German revolution in 1848-9.

14) Account for the decline of Austrian influence in Germany from 1851 to 1863.

Starting from 1851, Austria declined in her influence in Germany. This was resulted from the setback of her diplomacy, the decline of her power, and also her inaccurate diplomacy.

Although Schwarzenberg had succeeded in maintaining Austrian primacy in Germany, two rebuffs, political and economical, speeded up the decline of Austrian influence in Germany. For the political rebuff, it was about Schwarzenbergˇ¦s demand for the admission of the Austrian non-Confederation possessions to the Confederation. However, Prussia was now able to defend status quo, and other small German states knew that their survival relied on the maintaining a balance of power between Prussia and Austria. Therefore, Austria could not receive any support for her plan, and had to accept the revival of the Confederation at Dresden in 1851.

The Austrian Commerce Minister, Bruck, proposed a large economic unit in Central Europe under Austrian leadership, which would link the Zollverein with the Austrian sphere in the Danube basin. In his proposal, he also demanded the admission of Austria to the Zollverein, which would able Austria to establish a closer link with the German states. Nevertheless, he was failed to do so.

Unable to gain favorable changes in Germany during the early 1850s, Austria gradually declined in power. This was contributed by the loss of Russian support. Russia had become less inclined to help Austria in German affairs after Austria did not give any support to her in the Crimean War. At the same time, Austrian finances were crippled as a result of the expenses in the control of her internal unrest, the Italian War of 1859, and also the prolonged mobilization during the Crimean War. On the other hand, Prussia had increased her power in both economic and military term, since she had strong and able leaders, such as the King William, the Chief of Staff Helmuthvon Moltke, the Minister of War Albrecht von Roon, and the Premier Otto von Bismarck. The growth of Prussian power also weakened Austrian position in German affairs.

Austria was facing considerable problems both in her empire and abroad. Owing to her inflexible diplomacy, she failed to resolve these problems. The policy of retention of present position was followed by Austria, but then she was forced to withdraw from both German and Italian affairs. In 1859, Austria adopted the policy of the withdrawal from Italy when she was in war with Prussia. But she received no compensation instead, this greatly reduced her power as she had engaged in two humiliating and costly wars.

Actually, there were several chances for Austria to adopt more flexible policy towards German affairs. In 1859, when Prince Albrecht went to secure aid against France and Italy, she did not offer any benefit to induce Prussia to help. In the Teplitz meeting of 1860, the Emperor Francis Joseph and the Prussian king agreed on common action to be taken against French designs on western Germany, yet, nothing else was achieved. In the Bernstorff plan in 1861, Austria even opposed to the union policy of Radowitz, which envisaged a federal state in alliance with her.

Austria was forced to adopt the policy of concentration on domestic issues after 1866, despite it would have been distasteful to her in 1858. If she adopted it earlier, she might have retained some influence in Italy and Germany. All these poor diplomacy made Austria decline further in power.

In short, the political and economic rebuffs, the weakened power position, and the poor diplomacy were the causes for the decline of Austrian power in Germany from 1851 to 1863.

OK. Grade: A
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Yip Ming Wai (Brenda)

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3)There were several factors led to the disunity among the German people.

First of all was the difficulty in finding an agreed method of unity, and it was caused by the conflicting interests of the German states. Actually there were two method of unity suggested. One was the 'Greater Germany' which would include the non-German Austrian boundary. One was the 'Smaller Germany' excluded Austrian and her non-German boundary. Different states had different aims and opinion towards unity and its method. Austria did not want any unity since it might encourage nationalism and so her multi-racial empire might collapse due to revolts. Moreover, if she was excluded from the unified Germany, she might hence have many rivals which were her former fellow German people. Prussia supported unity. Yet the rulers of the smaller German states also opposed unification which meant they would lose their power as they saw little opportunity for them to be the ruler of the unified Germany.

Secondly, there was also differences and divisions among the German people. In the Northern part of Germany, the people were relatively rich and had little sympathy towards unity. They were also protestant while the people of the south were catholics; they favoured conservative and absolute government while the people in the south supported liberal government. What's more, the German people had little experiences of unification and the existence of various political party also made unity impossible.

Thridly, the weak Federal Diet contributed to the continued disunity in Germany. The Federal Diet had limited legal powers and a complicated voting system. It was only a diplomatic congress and not a parliament .It lacked means of enforcing its wishes. It had a mixed composition, Denmark, Britain, and Netherlands all had their kings in this Diet to represent their own interests in Germany. For example, Denmark was represented owing to the inclusion of Holstein in the Confederation.

Last but not least, the opposition of France also led to German disunity. As she had some influence on Southern part of Germany, unity meants reduction of her influence as well as interests.

All in all, due to the reasons above, the unity of Germany seemed never end.
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6)The chief factors contributing to greater German unity during the period of 1834-48 were as follow:

The creation of the Zollverein was one of the factors. It was a economic Customs Union led by Prussia. It promoted economic cooperation among the German states since its existence meant the cancellation of Custom barriers which were great obstacles to the growth of economy. Zollverein also helped to the formation of uniform measurment, currency, etc. Economic cooperation and unity, paved the way of political unity.

The growth of awareness of common nationality was another factor. As the German people realised that they should constituted a single nationality in terms of race, language, customs and tradition,etc, they tried to look for greater unity. For example, in 1848 after the February Revolution in Paris, there were popular demostrations in German states for constitutional changes, reforms and most importantly, national unity.

Lastly the growth of liberalism was also a factor contributing to greater German unity. Many liberals demanded constitutional democratic rule and under liberal rule, the German states were more willing to hear the demand for national unity. For instance, William IV of Prussia was relatively liberal and he also aimded at stronger national unity.

To conclude, the creation fo Zollverein, the growth of common national feeling as well as liberalism had led to greater German unity.
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12) The failure of the German Revolution in 1848-9 can be explained as follow:

Ineffectiveness of the Frankfurt and Prussian Assemblies was the first factor contributed the failure. The Frankfurt Assembly was, in fact, unable to find an agreed way of German unification, unable to get means to enforce its decisions and unable to get general support. It was also prolonged by the Danish Problem of Schleswig and Holstein. The Prussian Assembly, also did not take any firm action and the King did not allow the release of ruling power.

Another factor was the opposition of Austria and some German states to proposed territorial limits of Germany. That was, the exclusion of Austria as well as her non-German territory. Bavaria, Saxony and Hanover,etc objected this arrangemant.

Lack of good leaders to lead the German revolution also caused the failure. The imperial regent of Austria was unable to make the Frankfurt Paliament effective, as talked above. Different opinions existed in Germany yet no one of ablity was there to unify the people.

There was also the opposition of Prussian King, William IV, to the revolution. He was not able to make the Prussian Assembly effective, and his refusal to accept the crown of Germany contributed to the collapse of the Frankfurt Assembly.

Last but not least, the internal divisions within Germany made the German Revolution end in failure. For example, the working class people were either indifferent to the revolution or formed rival organisations. When a deputy called Hecker tried to form a republic but was defeated by Baden forces.

In short, the failure of German Revolution, because of the ineffectiveness of the Frankfurt and Prussian Assemblies, opposition of Austria and some German states and Prussian King, lack of capable leaders as well as the internal divisions within Germany, ended in failure inevitably.
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14) The decline of Austrian influence in Germany could be explained by the following reasons.

The first reason was her poor diplomacy. Austria, having complicated internal and external problems, still insisted to preserve her international position yet could not do it well.For example, She did not withdraw from the matter of Italy. However, if she had withdrawn, she might be able to concentrate on the Germany matter and might be able to gain a monetary compensation in exchange of Lombardy and Venetia so that she could use the compensation to settle some of her financial difficulties. Due to such inflexible diplomacies, Austria delined.

The second reason was the loss of Russian support. When Austria was back up by Russia, she could had a louder voice to protect her own interests. However, after the Crimean War of 1856, Russia was defeated and greatly weakened and was no longer able to support Austria. Moreover, since Austria did not aid Russia in the Crimean War, Russia was less incline to Austria in German affairs.

The third reason was her financial difficulties. The domestic unrest, especially in Hungary, had to be controlled with a large expense. Austrian participation in the Itlian War in 1859 forced her to expense a lot and her defeat made her lose Lombardy, a rich province.

The fourth reason was domestic unrest. As mentioned, as a multi-racial empire, political problems always existed and when her subjects demanded independence, she is required to expense a lot in order to settle the problems.

The last reason was the growth of Prussian power. As men of ablity were appointed by the New Prussian King, the power of Prussia grew inevitably. For example, Von Roon was appointed as the Minister of War so that army reform was introduced to strengthen Prussian military power. Bismarck was appointed as the Premier.

All right. Grade:A
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chan wing ki (Kinkichan)

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3)What factors tended to perpetuate German disunity after 1815?
First , Austria opposed the unity of Germany since this would promote the national feelings within her state and led to the break-up of her multi-national empire. Also, she might face strong rival power if she was excluded from Germany.
Second, Prussia supported the policy of keeping recent condition. It was because she did not have to grant a constitution promised under the pressure of Austria .
Third, the smaller German states opposed the measures of greater unity as they believed they would lose territory and power.
Fourth, there is great differences among the German people who consisted of a number of tributes such as Hanoverians ,Bavarians ,Prussian .Concerning their own interests gave rise to Particularism, which was the main obstacle to greater unity. Moreover, Germans in the north were mainly Protestant and supported absolutism in government whereas those in the south were general Catholic and supported liberal ideas. The differences in religion and politics among Germans made it difficult to greater unity.

6)Factors contributing to greater unity during 1834-48?
First, a Prussian Customs Union, Zollverein, was established in 1834 under the leadership of Prussia. Most German states were included in this union whereas Austria was excluded. Prussia became economically supreme in Germany. This factor strengthened Prussian power and raised her interests in leading German unification.
Second, the growing of nationality in Germany contributed to greater unity.
Most Germans realized the importance of constituting a nation in which people are of the same religion ,race, traditions. They awakened that they should preserve their own national interests from foreign aggression.
Third, the rise of liberalism in German states laid the basis for greater unity.
This meant that Germans were more willing to expressing their claims in political aspect. For example, the Prussia king released the press censorship , released political prisoners. As a result, his action encouraged Germans to claim for a greater unity.

12) Account for the failure of the German revolution in 1848-49
The ineffectiveness of the Frankfurt Parliament was one of the cause for the failure of German revolution. The Parliament not only lacked military power to assist the Germansˇ¦ revolts, but also lacked political power. It was because most representatives were middle class who only focused on debating but ignored the growing influence in Austria. This gave Austria a chance to recover from power and suppressed German revolts.

Another factor was the opposition of Prussian King. He refused to accept the crown of Germany since he had no mind to come to war with Austria. His passive actions led to the collapse of the revolution.

Furthermore, there was no suitable leaders in Germany capable of leading the unity of Germany. Even the imperial regent lacked will and ability .He was in character that made the Parliament ineffective.

Moreover, Austria and some German states opposed the exclusion of Austria from Germany. The reason was that Austria was reluctant to give Prussian supreme in Germany. The small German states also thought that excluding Austria would only spilt the national feelings of Germans but gained no advantage.

Lastly, the internal divisions within Germany contributed to the failure. There was clash between working classes and middle classes. The working class had no absolute wills on supporting revolution or rival organizations. Some Germans even claimed to form republic, but this measure was opposed.

14)Account for the decline of Austrian influence in Germany from1851 to 1863.
First, the setback of Austrian diplomacy was one of the reason leading to her decreasing importance in German affairs. Austria proposed to admit the Austrian non-German possessions to the German Confederation. However, both Prussia and small German states to her policy. The reason was that Prussia preferred to defending status quo while other German states feared their survival would be threatened if Austrian plan was implemented.
Economically, both Austrian plans of setting up an economic unit under Austrian leadership as well as requiring admission to the Zollverein were opposed by many German states. As a result, Austria remained isolated in economic aspect. Thus, her influence in Germany declined.

Another reason was the decline of Austrian power .Austria faced a serious financial problem since she had spent a lot of military expenses on controlling internal unrest and on Crimean War. Moreover, Austria lost the back up support from Russia who had suffered great lose in Crimean War. Not only then, Prussia gained power in military and economic aspects under the leadership of strong ,able leaders. Facing strong rival ,Prussia, it seemed that Austria influence in Germany was weakened to a larger extent.

Third, the inflexible Austrian diplomacy contributed to her decline. Austria not only preserved her present boundary in Europe ,but also intervened in Italian as well as German affairs. The later policy that Austria adopted made her suffered a lot. The reason was that if Austria withdrew from Italy, she might avoid disastrous war and have retained her power in Germany. On the other hand, if Austria granted the political concessions in Germany to Prussia, she might able to secure admission to Zollverein and gained Prussian aid to retain Italian possessions. Moreover, her late understanding in working out solutions for domestic problems resulted in missing chances of retaining power in both home and external areas. Therefore , the lack of flexibility in diplomacy led to the decline of Austrian influence on Germany.

Grade: A
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leungsiusze

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Posted on Monday, October 29, 2001 - 11:28 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

3) THere were fews factors tended to perpetuate German disunity after 1815.
First of all,the powers concerned about their own interests and their own powers ,which made more difficult to bring the unity of Germany.As Prussia and Austria opposed to promote the greater unity state .This was because that Austria felt that promoting a greater unity state seemed that encouraged the nationalism feeling amoung the puplic and it was also afraided that would broke its empire up while its empire was consisted of many different national people.Like Austria, Prussia also afraided that the unity of Germany would lead the fell of its status quo,that's why it opposited to the promotion too.
Not only the larger countries ,but also the smaller countries opposited to the promotion of greater unity because it would mean they lost their powers. Moreover,France opposited the unified of Germany too because ithad some influence of South German states while it recover its power after 1815.
Furthermore,the weakness of the Federal Diet also lead to the disunity of German.The Federal Diet was no law which bound on any member state unless few particular states accepted it. And the agreement of 2/3 majority was needed on any changes of the constitution of the Confederation .
That was too complicated of the voting system that difficult to carry out the policies. And the Federal Diet was not a really parliament but a deplomatic congress.That was because that its members were not represanted their states because they wanted to protect them against their foreign enemy and liberism.
All of the above made the unify of German difficult.


6) There were some important factors to contribute to the greater unity during the period 1834-48.
First of all, the creation of the Zollverein which provided a chance of economic co-operation for the states and then cause the unity in the future.
The other factor which helped to cotribute to the greater unity was that the growth of awareness of common nationality.As we known ,nationalism was already noticed after 1806.The German people also urged to form a nationality of the same language,traditions ,
race.etc.
Lastly,the rise of liberalism also helped t he formation of the greater unity.There were many liberals who was looking forward to the formation of the "free German "which with the democratic rule.For example, in the Southern Germany ,the all states here as Bavaria, Wurttemberg, had the representative meetingsas well as the parliament which received a national hearing.

Not bad but unfinished. Grade: Nil
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Chow Chun Kit (Ckchow731)

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Question 3:

There are two main reasons for the continued Germann disuinity.

First reason is the externeral influence.The main obstical of the unitity of Germany is Austria.She didn't encourage the spread of nationalism as it wuold likely cause the collaspe of her multi-racial empire.Besides, France opposed to any attemps to creat a greater Germany, too. It was because she didn't want to lost her influences in the South Germany.

On the the other hands, another reason was the differences and divisons among the German people.For example,in the Northern part, the people werw mainly Protestant, they were conservative and preferred absulutism. However on the South, most people were Roman Catholic and support liberal ideas.

Due to these unfavourable factors, Germany couldn't have a effective parliament, that's why disunity continued in Germany after 1815

Unfinished
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leungsiusze

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Posted on Friday, October 26, 2001 - 11:25 am:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

3) THere were fews factors tended to perpetuate German disunity after 1815.
First of all,the powers ??concerned about their own interests and their own powers ,which made more difficult to bring the unity of Germany.As Prussia and Austria opposed to promote the greater unity state .This was because that Austria felt that promoting a greater unity state seemed that encouraged the nationalism feeling amoung the puplic and it was also afraided that would broke its empire up while its empire was consisted of many different national people.Like Austria, Prussia also afraided that the unity of Germany would lead the fell of its status quo,that's why it opposited to the promotion too.
Not only the larger countries ,but also the smaller countries opposited to the promotion of greater unity because it would mean they lost their powers.

See above
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ctk ( - 202.64.92.195)

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Answer progress test no.3,6,12,14

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