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tony kw cheung ( -

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Posted on Monday, December 3, 2001 - 8:47 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

1. What were the major obstacles to the Italian unification in the period 1815-70? How were these obstacles overcome? (1997)

Italy after the Vienna Settlement was re-divided into 8 states. While with the influence of national idea , Italian want to join and unite together . During the process of unification, Italian face some obstacle, that is, both internal disunity and foreign threat. Nevertheless, with the planning by some national leaders and the grouth of national feeling, Italian can overcome the difficulties and tackle the obstacle.

The tradition of localism and separatism is the first barrier to Italian unification.That is the ways of life between southern and northern part of Italy is greatly different. People's consciousness of a common nationality was little developed and there was no national flag and even in Italy, provinces are against provinces, towns against towns and man against man. For the geography point of view, there is many natural barriers particular mountain ranges, which hinder the unification. Also, there had been little co-operation between Italian states in the past, the states were used to a separate existence and had differnent interest and administrative organinzations. Economicaly, the lack of economic unity was also a barrier to real union. The advanced urban society of the North, with ita rich resources for futher develpoment, compared to the poor, backward and peasant society of the South. As well as this, particularist feeling was strong in most of the ancient division of Italy and it is was difficult to see where acceptable leadership would come from in a movement for unity.

Besides, the opposition of the state ruler and their autocratic rule also be the barrier of unification. Italy, in fact, was very backward at that time, especially in Papal States and the two-sicillies. After the Vienna settlemant in 1815, Powers agree that there sholud be no constitution and parliament in European countries. Instead, princes was restored. However, those local ruler, except those of Piedmont, opposed any plans for unity since they were likely to result in lossing power and privileges. So, unification became more difficult.

Furthermore, the different schools of thought among Italian made the unification become more complicated and difficult. In the period 1815-1848, there were three main schools of thought on how to achieve unity, but all three group disliked each other and had no wish to co-operate. First, the idea of establishing a democratic republican , suggested by Mazzini, was supported by the youths and working class. Second, the Pope favour unifying 8 states in the form of feaudal state. Third, Charles Albert of Piedmont favour a constitional monarcy, it was supported ny the middle class. The different idea towards unification hindered the unification process.

In addition, the Pope and Roman question also hinder the unification. The Pope had temporal power over central Italy. He was supported not only by loyal Catholics in Italy but by France and Austria. He opposed any movement in Italy likely to threaten his authority in the Papal States, and his territory constituted a wedge between the northern and southern parts of Italy.

Externally, the foreign ambition and their dominating influence of foreign Powers is also a major obstacle to the unification. Especially Austria, she had quite deep influence in Italy. In the South, a Bourbon king ruled in Naples and Sicily; but more important and more threating was the presence of Austria in Lombardy and Venetia. Austria was a Great Power with wide possessions, the leading States in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, and was not likely easily to relinquish her Italian influence and possessions. Besides Austria, France can also be considered as a threat to unification in the beginning. The attitude of France to a strong united State on her frontiers was not likely to be wholly sympathetic and she would have to be carefully conciliated. NapoleonIII willing to help Italy only for his interest in the affairs of Northern, Central and Southern Italy.For example, he hoped the French influence would replace that of Austria in northern Italy, and also that France's Alpine frontier might be restored by the acquisitition of Nice and Savoy.In fact, Napoleon had no wish to unite Italy as many liberals hoped. He wanted to keep Italy weak and devided. So, Italy had to face the foreign threat as well as Austrian and French ambition.
This paragraph can be further elaborated esp. foreign influence (Austria and France). Imbalance as you talk too much about the geog...backgrd..etc in beginning.

Nevertheless, despite the obstacles, Italian can achieve their unification finally. The obstacles were tackled by the following ways.

For the problems of localism , separatism as well as the economic disunity , there was a grouth of national feeling among the intelligentsia and the progreesive middle classes after 1815. It was inspired by the increased hatred of Austria, people started to aware that Austria's presences in the North served as a perpetual reminder of the humiliating situation of Italy. Besides, the memories of the efficiency of French adinistration and the liberalism of French legal codes made Italian dissatisfied with the feudal and reactionary practices restored after 1815. Since Internal coustoms barriers hindered trade and economic unity among Italian states , some economists saw the abolition of frontiers in Italy ad the adoption of freer trade as a step to unity. Also, there was agricultural reform. When Charles Albert, King of Pidmont after 1831, became president of the Piedmonyese agricultural association. It drew members from various north Italian states, who in time expressed a desire for greater unity.

The obstacle of autocratic rule in Papal states and the Two Sicillies was eliminated by Piedmont's leadership in unification and the brilliant enterprise of Garibaldi in the South. After the national revolt in1848, although unsuccessful, Piedmont was then recognised as the hope of liberal Italy sinceit alone possessed an army capable fighting Austria and it had a constitution and a liberal government. After 1848, Piedmont took the lead alone in the unification of Italy. Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont, hoped that Piedmont would be strong enough to assume the leadership of Italy, so he carried out modernization programmes in Piedmont, that including administration, trade, industry and communications. Gradually, Piedmont became stronger and took the active role in the unification movement. On the other hand, in those autocratic states like Papal and Sicillies, the government became further weaken especially after 1848 revolt. People in there wanted to overthrow the ruler. Garibaldi saw this a good chance to free the Italian. When revolt broke out in 1860, he organized an expedition in Genoa to go and help the rebels. As a result, he had in 1860 broken the rule of King Francis in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and secured its adhersion to the Kingdom of Sardinia.

The position of the Pope was also virtually settled. In 1849, Mazzini led a revolt in Rome and set up a Roman republic.However, the Pope asked help from Austria and France. As a result, Napoleon helped to restore the Pope and in order to prevent the Pope from being overthrown, the French troops stationed in Rome till 1870. This event had shown the impossibility of a federally united Italy under the pope and of the inclusion of Papal territories as much in a union.In 1860, the temporal power of the papacy was broken by the decision of Romagna and Umbria to join the United Italian kingdom . Also, it also revealed that Republican was not yet generally accepted since the defeat of Roman Republic. So, the idea of setting up a constutional government under the leadership of an Italian king seemed to be more acceptable. As a result, the obstacle of different schools of thought among Italian had been removed also.

The Piedmont kingdom, which led by Cavour, had outwitted all foreign obstacle to unification. Deal with the ambition of Austria, Cavour keen on playing off France against Austria to the advantage of Piedmont. Cavour brought Piedmont to the Crimean War to win the sympathy from other Powers especially France. Also the bomb thrown by Orsini that awakened Napoleon III to agree to the secret Treaty of Plombieres of 1858 and showed the mastery of diplomatic skill in inducing Austria to declare war or Pidemont appered the aggressor and thus compelled NapoleonIII to come to the aid of Piedmont.As a result, Piedmont got Lombardy in 1859. However, as I mentioned before, France had her own ambition in central Italy, but Cavour also can outwit Napoleon III in the central Italian Duchies. He sent agent to work out a general uprising there with the new government of the central duchies demanding an union with Piedmont. Subsequently plebiscites were held in favour of union. Among the reasons, the frustration of Napoleon III's ambition in the central dichies directed him to settle Austria at Villafranca in 1859. By the Treaty of Turin, Cavour gained Lombady, and the Central Duchies for Piedmont. Although Cavour died before the unification complete, the king Victor Emmanuel II could also make clever decision to make agreement with Prussia, which saying that if Prussia won in the Austro-Prussian war, Italy will be given Venetia. In fact, Italy got Venetia in 1866 as a result through Treay of Prague. Finally, there was the last problem of unification of Rome. It is a quite difficult task since troop had been stayed there. Nevertheless, Piedmont could make use of a good chance of Franco-Prussian War to march into Rome and took it in 1870. As a consequence, Rome become the capital of united Italy .
With the removal of foreign threat, the unification movement completed.

All in all, with the capable leadership of Piedmont, Italy can finally unify in one state. This is to a large extent due to the spread of nationalism, Mazzini's role? Cavour's clever internal modernization and his clever diplomacy. Still, to a certain extent, the unification movement was also helped by the circumstances such as the the decline of Austria.

Grade: B+
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cherie chan (m202-140-116-165.ismart.net -

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Posted on Sunday, November 11, 2001 - 7:51 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

¡§Italy could not make herself¡¨.Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to her unification.

The succeed success of the Italian unification was caused by various factors. They could be divided into two aspects, the internal one and external one. In fact, external factors were the major force which contributed to the success of unification. That means the foreign aid and its influence. It was true that Italy could not unify herslef by her own effort.

Before we are going to discuss the importance of the foreign influences in the unification, it would better to know why Italy could not make herslef unity. It was because the local enivornment and there was no sense of unity in people¡¦s minds. In 1815, the Vienna Settlement, Italy was divided into eight states and most of them ruled under Austria. Although they were ruled under the people who had different race with them, they had no objection about the arrangement. As most of the Italians were traditionalists, they did not want any changes, so they were supported anti-revolutionary movement rather than revolutions. In 1821 and 1831, Carbonari and Mazzini organised the revolutions, however, they were all failed because the unwillingness for changes. The social condition showed it was not situable to carry out the unification. But they sow the seeds of anti-Austrian feelings and nationalism.

In 1848, the failure of the Italian risorgimento showed the importance of foreign aid. When the ideas of nationalism and liberalism further spread widely because the propersity of France as they adopted democracy after the French revolution, also because the liberation of the Balkan states, again rose their national awareness. Yet the revolution still resulted in failure as they had divergence views among Italian themselves and the most important point was that Piedmont was too weak in military force and economy. She was no match with Austria. Although later Cavour decided some reforms in order to make Piedmont strong and wealthy, but she could not be strong in a short period. Therefore, foreign aid was so important to Italian unification.

Now, we look back to the importance of the foreign aid in the Italian unification. In the unification movement, most of the territories she gained during the unification were by the force of foreign powers. They received aid from France, Britian, Prussia and Russia to fight against Austria, the powers¡¦ power supplemented the defect of Piedmont.

France helped Piedmont to gain Lambardy and the three central states, Parma, Modena and Tuscany in the war with Austria. This succeed helped to unify the central Italy. In the peace conference after the Crimean War, Cavour succeed to get the support from Napoleon III and signed Pact of Plombieres with him in 1858. France would receive the concession of Nice and Savoy if she supported Piedmont to defeat Austria and got Lombardy and Venetia. Yet Napoleon III had broken his own word and signed Truce of Villafranca with Austria after getting Lombardy. Piedmont and France stopped co-operation until1860, Napoleon III helped to persuade the three central states to unify with Peidmont in order to get Nice and Savoy. Although France helped Piedmont because their amibition on territories and reputation,??? their help contributed to the unification a lot, as Piedmont would be defeated if she had war with Austria alone.

The gaining of territories in Naples by Garibaldi, not only because the braveness of Garibardi, to a large extent was the aid from Britain. She kept neutral and prevent other countries to intervene. Also, because of the peace conference after the Crimean War, the situation of Piedmont gained Britain sympathy and Britain needed a strong Italy to check France, therefore, she supported the unification and helped Garibaldi. Other powers intervention in the conquer of Naples might bring failure to Garibardi, as he just had thousand Redshirts with him. So, we can see the importance of foreign aid.

Russia was an stable supporter for the Italian unification. really?? How did Ru support Italian unif??She wanted to see the weakening of Austria as she angry with Austria for her ambition of territories in the Crimean War. Apart from the dispute between them, the reason for her non-intervention policy was, she needed a rest after the serious defeat in 1856. Tsar Alexander II had to carry out reforms to recover the econommy and maintain her country in stable condition. Therefore, she had no time to deal with the foreign affairs.
As Russia was an amibious country in the early 19th century and always put small states under her own control, like Greece. So her non-intervention in the unification movement was beneficial to Piedmont, she then had no threat from the north east, she could concentrate her effort to have war with Austria only.This is rather 'favourable international situation'.

Prussia was another foreign aid in the unification, she helped Piedmont to get Venetia and Rome to complete the unification. Prussia who was also planned to free from the control of Austria and to unify herself. She was in conflict with Austria because the German Conferation. To achieve her unification, she also needed the support from Italy. Bismarck from Prussia first formed alliance with Victor Emmanuel II. They had a joint force to against Austria in order to get Venetia for Italy and replace the german Conferation by the North Conferation under Prussia. As Piedmont had an agreement with France, she could not invade Rome which had the French army occupation. Fortunately, she had the help from Prussia,Again what help?? I don't see Pru gave any direct help. in 1870, Prussia wanted a national war to complete the German unification, so she provoked the war with France, to fight against Prussia, France withdrew the occupation in Rome, then Italian troops moved in. This war indirectly helped Italy to get Rome without a war with France and complete the unification. Without the strong force from Prussia and her help, the Italian unification might not finish as Piedmont needed to think about an excuse to invade Rome.
Be careful with the word 'help'. How was French 'help' compared with so called 'Prussian' and 'Russian help'?
The foreign aid was important to the Italian unification, but we also could not ignore the decline of Austria. Her decline made easier for the unification. Austria which was a muti racial empire that means involved people from different races. As the idea of nationalism and liberalism rose up, people in her empire wanted to fight for unity and independence, she then was suffered from frequent internal revolutions. Therefore, Piedmont could defeat her with foreign aid and easily kept the territories in her control without the recapture of Austria. In addition, the flee and overthrew of Metternich after the 1848 revolution, came up to the end of the Metternich System and Austria¡¦s power gradually fall without the influence of Metternich. We also need to reconize the importance of the Crimean War, which made the powers isolate Austria and contributed to the non-intervention of Russia.

Indeed, the external factor was the most important factor in the Italian unification, we also could not nelgect the based background in Italy. For example, the leadership, the local revolutionaries effort which helped to spread national awareness among the Italians.

Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II were played an important role in the Italian unification. They were intelligent and contributed a lot. Like Mazzini, he organised the ¡§Young Italy¡¨ and started revolution inn 1848 with Garibaldi, his attempt helped to rise people¡¦s awareness in national affairs, so that as the Italians had those thinking, they then would vote for Italy to rule them in the plebiscite, like the three central states. For Cavour, he succeed to get the support from France and Britain by joining into the Crimean War, and these two powers helped Piedmont to get part of the territories in order to complete the unification. For Garibaldi, he exploited the social inequalities in the Two Sicilies and made people revolt against the landowners. Withour these social background, Garibaldi might not easily got the two Sicily. For Victor Emmanuel II, he succeed to get the support from Pruissa and got Venetia and Rome. What is the point here?? Why mention their role here? You should rather argue that they could not unify Italy alone though they had contributions, if you agree with the statement. Do not write self-defeating points!! Don't write all factors down if they were not useful to your answer.

In conclusion, the Italian unification, in a large extent was succeed because of the external factor such as foreign aid and its influence. It is sure to say, Italy could not make herself as there was no other force to help her. As she was still weak and if other power opposed her movement, she would finally fail. She was different from Germany, which had grouped the 39 German states together to form up the German Conferation, and favourable to unify themselves. Italy was divided and they needed others help and support to unify them. Therefore, the statement is true.

You did better this time, though there are mistakes.
Grade: B
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Yat (cm61-10-229-98.hkcable.com.hk -

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Posted on Friday, November 9, 2001 - 7:24 pm:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

1. What were the major obstacles to the Italian unification in the period 1815-70? How were these obstacles overcome? (1997)

There were several major obstacles to the Italian unification, among all, the individualist tradition of Italy and the lack of nationalism were the biggest obstacles towards the Italian Unification that the Italian must overcome. Externally, Austria influence and the seperation of the Italian states increased the difficulties to the project as well. France...

The greatest obstacle facing the Italian unification is the individualist tradition of Italy. The regionalism in Italy was so strong that hindered the growth of nationalism. Italy had been divided into various states throughout centuries. Even under Napoleon when it was said to be unified, it still divided into Northern, Central, and Southern Italy. Other than political and geographic expression, the difference between the north and the south discourage then to unite. In addition to the great difference of ¡§way of life¡¨, the north was economically advanced urban area but the south was backward rural area. The north was not willing to share the resources with the south and did not favour unification. Moreover, the state rulers would never support the unification. Once Italy was united, they'll lose all their power and prestige as they have to hand in their land to the new Italy ruler, they can no longer rule the states.

The lack of nationalism and disunity within the country was also an obstacle deriving from strong separatism against the Italian unification. The Italian was divided among themselves, according to Metternich, ¡¨in Italy provinces are against provinces, towns against town, families against families, and-men against men¡¨ there is little nationalism within the boundary, the consciousness of a common nationality was little developed. The demand to achieve unification was little after 1815 when they¡¦re divided in the Vennia Settlement. Even there were some senses of unity, they were divided among themselves. The three main school of thoughts were: the republican ideas advocated by Mazzini who wanted to abolish the monarchies and to establish a democratic republic; the Papal federalist idea suggested by Gioberti support the unity of Italy to be a federal state under the Papacy; the last idea of liberal monarchists supported the unification of Italy by Piedmont to form a liberal monarch.

All these obstacles were tackled steps by steps towards the unification movement. Economically, the abolition of custom frontiers and the free trade movement encourage trade between the Italian states. The building of railways within the Italian states, namely the Lombardo-Venetia line, had improved the communication within them. The set up of the Piedmontese agricultural association with it member from various states increase the sense of solidarity among the Italian. To some extent, the Italian still remain some national standpoint, they share the same language, the same racial and cultural background. The presence of Austria in the north reminded the people their humiliating situation. The increasing hatred to Austria increased the unity of the Italian as they have a common enemy. According to the principal of legitimacy, many unpopular rulers were restored to the Italian states. After the French rule in the Napoleonic era, the Italian was introduced the idea of liberalism, the feudal and reactionary practices of the conservative rulers annoyed the people. They began to think of a liberal government and the unification of Italy.

The 1848 revolutions help the Italians to unite as a whole as well. The revolutions attempted to expelled the Austrian troops or to urges for political concession of constitution. The liberal revolts in Piedmont, Kingdom of Naples, Tuscany and the Papal States got a temporary constitution from the government. The national revolts in Lombardy and Venetia tried to drive out Austria. The most significance was the Austro-Piedmontese War. Piedmont, with the help of the Kingdom of Naples, Tuscany and the Papal States, fought the war against Austria to aid the revolts. However, the Pope withdrawn his troops suddenly and the other two states follow suit. This left piedmont fighting alone. Though Piedmont was eventually defeated, but it helped in the way that showing Piedmont's leadership in future unification movement as she bravely fought against Austria and her military strength was shown. The preserve of the constitution in Piedmont made her the most liberal states in Italy. The republican idea of Mazzini was proved impractical in the failure of the liberal revolts. The Pope's withdrawal in the war disappointed the people and was discredited as a liberal leader. Therefore, after the 1848 revolutions, what the people hoped for-- a united liberal Italy, was shown. And piedmont was proved to be the most capable leader in Italy to lead the unification movement.
Other barrier below?? topic sentence??
After the Vienna settlement 1815, Italian was again became an "merely geographic expression", the Italy states was divided into roughly into eight parts and Piedmont was the only state that ruled by Italian, which was strengthened by adding Genoa to be a buffer state against France. The Austrian influence was largest in most of the Italian states. Austria controlled the two states of Lombardy and Venetia, and indirectly ruled the central states of Modena, Parma, Tuscany and Lucca, these states were ruled by Austrian relatives. The papal States was ruled by the Pope, but was influenced by the Austria, a Catholic country. The French troops occupied Papal States after the 1848 revolutions. The Kingdom of Naples was ruled by a Bourbon King who had an alliance with Austria. To conclude, to lead the unification movement, Piedmont must fight against Austria, which was not willing to give up her power in Italy, as she was the leading power in the central Europe.
What helped to remove 'external barrier'? topic sentences?
Piedmont itself as a small state, was no match to the huge Austria Empire. Therefore, Piedmont heavily needed support from foreign powers. Cavour brought Piedmont in the Crimean war in 1856 and successfully gained Britain and France's sympathy. However, the two powers did nothing to help until the secret Plombieres Meeting in 1858. Napoleon met with Cavour and the Franco-Piedmontese Alliance was formed. France agreed to help Piedmont to expel Austria influence in Italy, gain the five states of Lombardy, Venetia, Modena and Parma and Romagna in the northern Italy. In the central Italy, France would unite the two states of Tuscany and Umbria. The war against Austria was fought in 1859. With French help, Piedmont defeated Austria. Though France suddenly made peace with Austria, Piedmont still successfully gained Lombardy in the Truce of Villafranca but Venetia was hold in the hands of the Austria. Yet the central Duchies of Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna rebels in 1860 so Britain suggest a plebiscite in these states and they all voted for union with Piedmont. With Britain support, other power such as France and Austria dare not to intervene. Should present this part analytically, rather than chronologically.

In the second stage of uniting with the southern states of the Kingdom of Naples and most of the Papal States was mostly done by Garibaldi. With the help of the one thousand Red Shirts, Garibaldi marched to the Two Sicilians. Though Britain did not involved in the expedition, she helped in sending ships with troop to Sicily at the same time and frightened the other powers not to intervene. Garibaldi took the two states and handed it to Victor Emmanuel II.

Except France and Britain, Prussia did help in the problem against Austria. In the last stage of the unification, Italy only left Venetia and Rome. In 1866, a treaty of alliance was signed between Italy and Prussia in the "Seven Weeks' War" against Austria, Austria was defeated and Italy gained Venetia. The major obstacle, Austria, was said to be removed with the diplomacy skill of Piedmont. Up to this stage Italy only left Rome, that was occupied by French troops. In 1870 when the Franco-Prussian War broke out, the French troops in Rome were withdrawn and Italy took the chance to move in and took it.
How international situation had helped??

To conclude, the Italian unification was not an easy goal to accomplish. With the strong individualism in the country, the leading power must arouse the national feeling and unity among the people. Piedmont had show its capability in doing the job and the foreign help seek by the excellent diplomatic skill should not be neglected in the unification movement.
In conclusion, write explicitly what helped to remove these obstacles - internal and external.

First part is better.
Grade: B/B+
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ctk ( -

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Posted on Friday, November 9, 2001 - 9:54 am:   Edit PostDelete PostView Post/Check IPPrint Post   Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)Ban Poster IP (Moderator/Admin only)

Essays here.

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